Life of a Brave: Dark Web Poses Virtual Threat To Students

by Joshua Lucero and Elijah Ramos

What is the Dark Web? The Dark Web is part of the world wide web that can only be accessed by a special software, allowing participants to be anonymous whilst participating in illegal activities.

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The Dark Web is more than just a label that has been given by the feeble minds of those who do not understand the magnitude of this creation.

The “Dark Web” and “Deep Web”  can be seen as separate online resources. However, the Deep and Dark Webs are virtual seas where users can access information that they cannot in regular search engines such as Safari, Yahoo and Google.

The Dark Web is purposely hidden and encrypted from others. These encryptions include sites that distribute drugs, guns and other illegal products.

This separate part of the internet has seemingly always been there, but no one truly knows who exactly created the Dark Web. Even though the direct origins of this system of secure servers is unknown, there are still speculations.

The Dark Net is the foundation of the accessible tool TOR (The Onion Router), which was created in the 1990s by the U.S. Naval Research Labs funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The use of TOR was created to keep people anonymous when accessing and communicating on the internet.

This use of TOR was to protect field agents when talking to their handlers. They would communicate on a secure network, and through the use of TOR, their IP addresses would be scrambled and become unrecognizable. This main basis of TOR was to benefit those who would participate in endangering their lives in operations that were classified to the public.

TOR was created by Paul Syverson and two other mathematicians who began to make this concept a reality. When these men created TOR, it worked by hiding a user’s IP address as it passed through other random IP addresses in the onion server before reaching the final destination.  In the earlier stages of TOR, only law enforcement was using this secure site. Even though TOR would bounce their messages through other IP addresses, it would be relatively difficult to spot a user.

The way onion users were spotted was easy, because the person’s final IP address that the website would see would be marked from the onion server. This meant that even though they had a “secure” way to talk, if someone saw the onion IP address it would automatically be assumed that law enforcement was involved. Therefore, they would release this tool of secrecy to the public so their hidden eyes could be more protected by having more users.

In 2002, TOR became open to the civilian population, as the government started downplaying its military origins to attract a wide pool of users.

During that time and still today, the Deep Web provides easier, more secure way to engage in illegal activity without high exposure. The Deep Web, with the help of TOR, became a space in which people who enforce the law, those who oppose it, and those who have a sense of curiosity for the unknown began to rub virtual shoulders.

In short, the start of TOR brought into the world what we know now as the Deep Web, the Dark Web and its many other names. 

Overall, the Dark Web is creating a rise in the criminal underworld that has and will continue to rise with the evolution of technology. The Dark Web is something of a virtual Costco where there are endless supplies to what the buyer wants. 

Jobs on the dark web can consist of delivering unknown packages from point A to point B. A driver can accumulate $1,000 a week if packages are consistent and of the same market price. Others can make more depending on the value of what is in the package. 

Drug dealing is a major effect of the dark web. Business on the web has boomed because of the transaction of money through cryptocurrency such as Bitcoin. With the blend of sites like Silk Road and Bitcoins untraceable currency, the dark web has a high number of customers. Sites like Silk Road are one of the major attractions for the drug trade.

Silk Road was like Amazon, or any type of online business, with established categories such as drugs, guns, jewelry, computer equipment, books and anything else you can think of. With these categories came subcategories, and if you were looking for a high of any kind, the Silk Road was the place to go. But in 2013,this site was shut down with the creator – Ross Ulbricht – caught by the FBI.

The Dark Web has limitless illegal uses and is no place for fun, nor should it be taken lightly. 

On the Dark Web, illegal acts that are cultivated to seem normal when interacting in the footsteps of danger. When lurking, there are many traps that you can follow to get in situations that will be regretted by a user. The web has communications with terrorist groups, militias and other military trained groups for hire.

Hypothetically, these groups can cause mass destruction wherever they may be hired. So-called “governments” on the web could and may have hired groups to put another country at risk. This does not stop at terrorist groups, but people are able to hire hit-men to do their dirty deeds. It doesn’t stop at potentially killing someone “IRL” (in real life) but if someone needed a picture, video, or anything planted or erased, there are hackers for hire to do any job such as this. They are able to destroy anything connected to the web that needs to be destroyed.

When surfing the dark web, there are live chat rooms that would deeply disturb the average human mind. Examples of unspeakable crimes against humanity are known as “red rooms.” These rooms vary from a number of live chat and recorded videos of deeply disturbing events. These live chats can consist of victims of all ages being dragged and taken against their will to unknown places or rooms. In these rooms, there is a list of options to either torture or kill the victims.

In order to get clearance in these live chat rooms to participate, the active participant must pay the greatest amount of currency on the server. As the top bidder, they are then able to choose from a list of options that are provided to kill or torture their victim. In many cases, these chat rooms are filled with vicious people hidden behind a screen. An example of this is someone in these chat rooms winning the top bid and then choosing what to do with the particular victim. 

Horrific rooms and videos similar to this can be found in the deepest parts of the dark web. These recurring rooms are only expanding. Again, this place should not be taken lightly or looked at due to childish curiosity.

Even though people may not have the intentions to look at this type of material, it is easy to let one’s curiosity get the better of them. There are no second chances when interacting on these levels. Viewer discretion is strongly advised.

 

News: Boeing 737 Max Recalled After Two Fatal Crashes

by Joshua Adoh

After two fatal crashes involving the Boeing 737 Max, the Chicago-based aerospace company has been forced to recall the plane.

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On April 4th, 2019, Chairman, President and CEO of Boeing Dennis Muilenburg issued out a message to the families that were involved in the recent fatal crashes of the Boeing 737. 

In this apology, he explains a bit of information on why these aircraft crashed in the first place and the failures that took place.

“Let me emphasize that safety is always number one at the Department of Transportation. A good day is when nothing bad happens,” stated secretary Elaine Chao. 

Boeing is currently going through intense scrutiny for the multiple failures of its aircraft. After such losses, the company is going to have a rough time marketing their aircraft again.

Muilenburg deeply apologized for the losses that occurred due to the 737 Max failures.

“Together, we’ll do everything possible to earn and re-earn that trust and confidence from our customers and the flying public in the weeks and months ahead. Again, we’re deeply saddened by and are sorry for the pain these accidents have caused worldwide. Everyone affected has our deepest sympathies,” stated Muilenberg in a recent statement.

Trying to push safety as Boeing’s main objective is not only a mechanical issue but also a means to gain back the trust of their consumers and endorsements.

“Software for the Boeing 737 Max and safety features classified as optional are at the heart of the scrutiny – and a federal probe – over the design and marketing of the aircraft as well as the FAA’s certification of it,” stated WTTW News.

“The full details of what happened in the two accidents will be issued by government authorities in the final reports, but, with the release of the preliminary report of the Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 accident investigation, it’s apparent that in both flights the Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System – known as MCAS – activated in response to erroneous angle of attack information,” said Muilenberg.

Mr. Muilenburg seems extremely confident and poised about the development of the companies aircraft and takes full ownership of the tragedies that occurred.

“The history of our industry shows most accidents are caused by a chain of events. This again is the case here, and we know we can break one of those chain links in these two accidents,” he stated.

Improving planes MCAS will allow for a safer and better flying aircraft, yet the question that seems to be on everyone’s mind is – how long will these improvements take? And ultimately, how effective will these improvements be?

 

Nipsey Hussle: The Marathon Continues

by Nnamdi Chugbo

The death of the late, great Nipsey Hussle has left the world in shock.

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The Los Angeles native rapper passed away on March 31st, 2019 as a victim of a murder outside of his clothing store, The Marathon Clothing.

The rapper was praised for the way he was able to turn around his life from living a life in the streets as a gangbanger of the Rollin’ 60’s Neighborhood Crip. He dedicated the last years of his adult life to giving back to the community and pouring funds and community service into the broken streets of Los Angeles.

Nipsey Hussle, born Ermias Joseph Asghedom, was pronounced dead on the scene of at his murder. The news of his murder caused an uproar of mourning and respectful remembrance of the late rapper throughout the streets of Los Angeles and across social media platforms. Notable figures, such as Rihanna, LeBron James, YG, Snoop Dogg, Jay-Z, and many more took to social media to mourn and send prayers and support to the family and friends of the late rapper.

Nipsey’s humanitarian contributions to South Los Angeles were formally entered into the Congressional Record by Congress member Karen Bass. Some of his many contributions to the community include establishing a STEM center that partnered with Silicon Valley outlets and investing money into his community through his clothing store – The Marathon Clothing – right on Crenshaw and Slauson in the heart of South Los Angeles.

Nipsey also created many jobs in his community by funding barbershops, cell phone stores, multiple restaurants, his recording studio – Marathon Studios – and even a record label called, “All Money In Records.”

He believed that the true way to give back to the community that raised him was by investing in it and allowing his community to progress in the right direction economically and educationally.

The late rapper also left an eternal imprint on the music industry. His albums, Crenshaw, The Marathon, The Marathon Continues, Slauson Boy 2, and Victory Lap were his most renowned works. Victory Lap was even nominated for a Grammy Award for the best rap album of 2018, but fell just a bit short to Cardi B with her debut album, Invasion of Privacy.

Nipsey Hussle’s death was a very unfortunate blow to the whole world, specifically the Los Angeles area. Thankfully, his legacy will last forever and everybody can learn a lesson from looking at the kind of life that Nipsey lived.

He went from a kid who was lost in the streets to a respectable figure that beat the odds and helped his community in ways that upbuilt not just the black community, but every citizen of South Los Angeles forever.

 

News: “Brexit” Update

by Joshua Adoh

The term Brexit stands for “British exit,” describing Britain plans to soon exit the rule of the European Union (EU).

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So, why is the United Kingdom leaving the Union?

Well, the UK is leaving the Union due to the referendum, or public vote, being passed to support this exit, according to BBC News. This referendum was held on June 23rd, 2016.

The big question that was on everyone’s mind during the referendum was, “should the UK leave or remain in the Union?” The leave side won 52 percent to 48 percent. The date for the UK’s exit was initially set to be March 29th, 2018.

The UK and the other EU countries are currently discussing the withdrawal agreement, discussing more of how the United Kingdom will secede from the EU, rather then what will happen after they leave.

According to BBC News, the withdrawal agreement has two documents, one draft that is a 585-page agreement on Britain’s withdrawal and another 26-page statement on the UK’s future relationship with the EU.

Each discuss the commitments over citizens’ rights after Brexit, stating that people will be able to work and study where they currently live, and to be joined by family members. A 21-month transition period will be held after the UK’s departure, to allow time for trade talks.

The UK will continue to follow all EU rules during this period in order to give governments and businesses more time to prepare for long-term changes.

According to Bloomberg News, the most pressing issues of the Brexit development is: “Government may present the Withdrawal Agreement Bill to Parliament next week. This encapsulates the Brexit deal in law.”

Senior members of the influential 1922 Committee of Conservative MP’s met recently amid increasing frustration with May’s leadership.

All the discussion of Britain exiting the EU has been flipped on its head. So much has happened that even the President has been forced to step in.

Rachel Johnson, the sister of arch-Brexiter Boris Johnson and former BBC North America correspondent Gavin Esler, is a candidate of those apart of Change UK.

Each candidate believes the same things – that the old political parties let them down.

“Our political system is a joke, it’s a worldwide joke, they’re laughing at us – not with us but at us,” said Gavin Esler during the Change UK candidates announcements. “I’ve joined the Remain alliance to stop Brexit, fix Britain and move on to reform the EU. The first move is a people’s vote, because we have to stop Brexit now.”

The Change UK party is looking to make some real changes, but are experiencing pressing opposition from the Labour Party who is currently working hard to get Parliament to pass the Withdrawal Agreement Bill, the legislation that allows Brexit to happen.

“The Labour Party’s official position is that it accepts the divorce part of the deal, and just objects to the bit about the future relationship with the bloc,” stated Bloomberg News.

Brexit does not seem to be getting resolved anytime soon, so you can sit tight and leave it to The Brave News to supply you with constant updates.

 

SJB Unsung Heroes: Ms. Margie Woods

by Elliston Ospina and Jake Newman

“Through my husband, I was able to see the eyes of Bosco.”

Ms. Woods is one of the most beloved members of our school’s faculty. She represents the light and kindness of Don Bosco in her everyday routine.

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The legend herself – Ms. Margie Woods – has a very dynamic role at Bosco. She is responsible for attendance control and messages, absences and notes, an everyday, all-day type of task.

This is what makes Ms. Woods a hero at St. John Bosco High School. She cares about the students at Bosco and who they are. She goes out of her way to make sure we are doing well and carrying our weight academically and in the community.

Not to mention, she is known to make the best cookies on the planet.

Ms. Woods explained her motivation to be such a light on our campus and why she gives so much back to the students. It lies in a traumatic event in her past.

On October 19th, 2011, she lost her husband. He was a freshman math teacher at Bosco who was regarded with high remarks. All latter math teachers would always tell Ms. Woods of how great of a teacher he was and how much he cared for his students. 

When he passed away, she received a ton of love and support from her students and from the faculty and staff at Bosco. They were there for her at one of her most difficult times.

“Through my husband, I was able to see the eyes of Bosco,” said Ms. Woods.

She is referring to Bosco being more than just a place for academic growth, but a place for spiritual and individual growth as well. However, if she could have one recommendation for our faculty, it would be for Bosco to return to its core values of being more purposeful and engaging in what we do. 

She is an extreme advocate of the ‘Pay It Forward’ mentality. This is why she does what she does: the cookies, the long talks, the cup o’ noodles. She makes little to no profit off of it, but spends every night preparing these things for her students the next day. It’s all meant to cater to the students.

Ms. Woods represents something we all need to embrace: a selfless train of thought. We need to look after those in our community just as we look after ourselves.

IMG_1106This is the very thing that attracted her to come to St. John Bosco. She was attracted to how much of a family the community tends to be. Since her husband was already a teacher, her getting job here wasn’t a shock. 

“My husband and son graduated here, and I went to Savio in seventh and eighth grade. So this school has been apart of my life for along time,” said Ms. Woods.

After her 15 years of being on the staff here at Bosco, Ms. Woods is still embracing every little moment she has and is enjoying it very much. The kids is what keeps her here at Bosco.

“The students is my favorite thing about this job. I enjoy the students and understanding where they are coming from,” said Ms. Woods.

However long she decides to stays here, one thing is for certain, the student and the rest of the staff will continue to love and embrace her and she will do the same to everybody else.

Sports: 2019 NFL Mock Draft

by Lucas Garrison

With the 2019 NFL Draft just hours away, here are my picks and thoughts for the ever-important first round tonight.

(Arizona Cardinals trade with Raiders. The Cardinals will receive the 4th overall pick, the 27th pick, the 140th pick, and a 2020 fourth round pick.)

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1. Oakland Raiders: (needs) DE, RB, LB, DB

Selection: QB Kyler Murray, Oklahoma

  • The Raiders select Kyler Murray. Jon Gruden seems to grow fonder and fonder of Kyler, and lacks trust in Derek Carr. Expect Carr to be traded.

2. San Francisco 49ers: LB, DB, EDGE

Selection: DE Nick Bosa, Ohio State.

  • Bosa maybe the most complete player in the draft and could complement this Defense that will now feature Dee Ford Kwon Alexander, and now Nick Bosa.

3. New York Jets: EDGE, WR, LB

Selection: EDGE Josh Allen, Kentucky

  • The Jets need to boost their pass rush abilities. Along with Leonard Williams expect teams to struggle to stop both of these elusive pass rushers

4. Arizona Cardinals: OL, WR, DE

Selection: MLB Devin White, LSU

  • The Cardinals after trading down from number one still had a surplus of players Choose from they take Devin White who will look to make an immediate impact on the teams pass rush

5. Tampa Bay Buccaneers: OL, RB, DB, DL

Selection: DT Quinnon Williams, Alabama

  • The Bucs get arguably a once in a generation talent Williams will more than likely replace Gerald McCoy who has had trade talks surrounding him for sometime now. Wouldn’t be surprised to see a move either later in the draft or during preseason surrounding McCoy.

(Giants trade down to ten with the Broncos. In return, the Giants receive the 10th pick in this years draft, the 71st pick and a fifth rounder next year)

6. Denver Broncos: QB, CB, ILB, DB

Selection: QB Drew Lock, Missouri

  • Lock will more than likely sit a year behind newly acquired QB Joe Flacco. Hopefully he will develop into the talent the Broncos need. However, I think that Lock at best is a mid second round talent going to a team desperate to find the future of their franchise. In 3 years we could be looking at a huge draft flop.

7. Jacksonville Jaguars: OL, WR, DB, TE

Selection: TE TJ Hockenson, Iowa

  • The Jaguars offense will continue to struggle without weapons. Hockenson will be a reliable target for Foles as the team will more than likely rely heavily on the running game. Hockenson can bolster this team.

8. Detroit Lions: OL, WR, DB, LB

Selection: DT Ed Oliver, Houston

  • The Lions add DT Ed Oliver here, and in doing so they form one of the most dominant defensive lines in football with Ezekiel Ansah, Trey Flowers, and now Ed Oliver.

9. Buffalo Bills: OL, TE, WR, RB

Selection: OG Cody Ford, Oklahoma

  • The Bills are in need of making a large offensive splash in the draft. An OL doesn’t scream splash, but Cody Ford will provide solid protection to Josh Allen and the RB core. Solid Pick.

10. New York Giants: QB, WR, DB

Selection: QB Daniel Jones, Duke

  • The Giants need a QB simple fact. They passed on Sam Darnold last year for Saquon Barkley which wasn’t a terrible pick. However, Eli has maybe 2 years left in him giving plenty of time for Jones to develop into a solid talent.

11. Cincinnati Bengals: QB, WR, DB, DL

Selection: DE Rashan Gary, Michigan

  • Gary should prove to be a solid add to a team that needs as much help as possible. However, there are a lot of questions surrounding Gary for the simple fact of that he didn’t cause enough interruption at Michigan. Gary is a player with a lot of upside, but could also flop very hard.

12. Green Bay Packers: ILB/OLB, EDGE, DB

Selection: TE Noah Fant, Iowa

  • A very straightforward pick for the Packers. After last seasons disappointing performance by Jimmy Graham, Rodgers is going to need a reliable secondary target. Fant should prove to be solid in the NFL, giving Rodgers another weapon, that could lead this team deep in the playoffs.

13. Miami Dolphins: ILB/OLB, QB, WR, OL

Selection: OL Jonah Williams, Alabama

  • There is a lot of speculation across the Dolphins this upcoming season. A lot of experts think they will “tank” to get either Tua Tagovailoa or Justin Herbert early in next year’s draft. With that being said that QB will need some protection why not take arguably the most put together OL in the draft.

14. Atlanta Falcons: DL, TE, OL, DB

Selection: DB Byron Murphy, Washington

  • The Falcons secondary is old. They need help at CB, and Byron Murphy should work very well in Dan Quinn’s system. He should also boost the teams secondary.

15. Washington Redskins: QB, OL, DB

Selection: QB Dwayne Haskins, Ohio State

  • Once again the Redskins have put themselves in a situation in which they shouldn’t need to worry about a QB, but with the injury to Alex Smith the Skins made a trade for Case Keenum. Plus, the team will take Haskins at 15 hoping he can develop into a solid NFL talent.

16. Carolina Panthers: OL, DB, WR

Selection: WR Marquise Brown, Oklahoma

  • The Panthers need to give Cam Newton some dangerous targets. With the add of Brown he will know be able to rely on Greg Olson, Christian McCaffrey, and Brown. Along with the add of Chris Hogan Brown should be a solid add.

17. New York Giants: WR, DB, OL

Selection: EDGE Montez Sweat, Mississippi State

  • Sweat will add to a team desperate for a pass rush. After trading away J.P.P. the Giants have lacked a pass rush. Sweat will be a solid add and a steal at 17.

18. Minnesota Vikings: OL, LB, TE

Selection: C Garrett Bradbury, NC State

  • The add of a solid offensive line talent will lead the team to stronger pass protection for their well over paid QB. Bradbury also has the potential to move around on the OL.

19. Tennessee Titans: OL, DB, WR

Selection: OL Andre Dillard, Washington State

  • The Titans have a problem with an injury prone QB. To start to hopefully change this they need to add some solid protection for him. Dillard is a very interesting pick for the fact that he is a very mobile OL. He can move back and forth across the OL.

20. Pittsburgh Steelers: DB, EDGE, WR, TE

Selection: DB Greedy Williams, LSU

  • Terrible. The only way to describe the Steelers secondary. Greedy Williams in my opinion is the best DB in the draft. He’s fast and has amazing hands. Expect to see Williams boost this defense.

21. Seattle Seahawks: EDGE, OL, TE, LB

Selection: EDGE Brian Burns, Florida State

  • With the trade away of Frank Clark the Seahawks need to add some solid young talent to the edge rush. Burns is a solid late first round pick. However, it may take 2-3 seasons until we truly see him bloom into his true potential.

22. Baltimore Ravens: WR, LB, RB, DB

Selection: WR D.K. Metcalf, Ole Miss

  • The Ravens are coming off of a very impressive season. However, they lost a lot of their WR’s. D.K. Metcalf has impressed a lot of scouts. With this I expect the Ravens to jump all over him if he is still available here.

23. Houston Texans: OL, ILB, DB

Selection: DB Rock Ya-Sin, Temple

  • The Texans have lacked in CB help over the past two seasons. Not only that, but they also lost star safety Tyrann Mathieu in free agency. Thus, the Texans need some much needed help in their pass coverage. Rock Ya-Sin may take time to develop but should be a very solid add to this defense.

24. Oakland Raiders: OL,ILB,RB,TE

Selection: DB Deandre Baker, Georgia

  • The Raiders have lacked good pass coverage for years now. Baker should be a solid add to the defense. He can make an immediate impact. Plus, with Gareon Conley on the other side of him these two should make a solid one two punch in the defense.

25. Philadelphia Eagles: OLB, DB, RB

Selection: DB Nasir Adderley, Delaware

  • Adderley will be a very solid add to the Eagles secondary. He is a CB playing at SS. This means you can float him around on the defense especially since he will more than likely backup Malcolm Jenkins. This is a very solid add.

26. Indianapolis Colts: DB, OL, WR

Selection: DT Dexter Lawrence, Clemson

  • Lawrence does have a lot of questions surrounding him. Especially after the steroid scandal in the CFP. However, Lawrence will be a great add to a defensive front that needs it.

27. Arizona Cardinals: OL, DB, WR, TE

Selection: EDGE Clelin Ferrell, Clemson

  • Ferrell Is a very solid add to this defense. If all pans out as i’ve predicted they have now added two excellent defensive prospects that will bolster their defense to another level.

28. Los Angeles Chargers: OL, DB, DT

Selection: DB Johnathan Abram, Mississippi State

  • Chargers last season drafted the best player in my opinion in the draft with Derwin James. If they are able to score Abram they now could have a lethal one two punch at the safety position.

29. Seattle Seahawks: OL, DB, WR, TE

Selection: OL Eric McCoy, Texas A&M

  • The Seahawks just invested a lot of money in Russell Wilson. Thus, they need to start protecting him. The Seahawks OL has been terrible for years. Eric McCoy has a very good chance at being a solidadd to a bad offensive line.

30. Green Bay Packers: OL, WR, DB

Selection: OL Dalton Risner, Kansas St.

  • The Packers in the draft have already added Noah Fant to give huge support to Aaron Rodgers. Now let’s get Rodgers some protection. The add of Risner would work very well hear.

31. Los Angeles Rams: OL, DT, ILB

Selection: DT Jeffery Simmons, Mississippi State

  • The Rams have not resigned Ndamukong Suh thus the need a DT. The add of Jeffery Simmons would more than likely work very well as he should be able to get very strong penetration up the middle.

32. New England Patriots: TE, OL, Edge

Selection: TE Irv Smith Jr., Alabama

  • Gronk retired. Brady needs a new TE. Belichick more than likely will be able to turn Smith into a star.

 

News: Beloved Notre Dame Cathedral Burns In Fire

by Nikolas Molina

On Monday, April 15th, the famous Notre Dame Cathedral was engulfed in a roof fire. Although it was a roof fire, it still damaged many sacred artifacts during the burning.

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The fire was fueled by the surplus of wood due the the framework of the 13th century. building, according to Msgr. Patrick Chauvet, the cathedral’s rector.

The main artifact and most precious of the cathedral was saved, the Crown of Thorns. Some believe it was once placed on the head of Christ.  

A copper rooster that sat atop the spire was recovered intact, and Mayor Anne Hidalgo confirmed the Tunic of Saint Louis and other major works were also saved.

“A number of artworks will be taken to the renowned Louvre art gallery in the coming days. A series of paintings, called ‘Mays de Notre Dame,’ will be transferred there as well,” stated CNN.

The facade and twin bell towers survived along with the cathedral’s main bell, Emanuelle.

The trio of rose windows that date back to the 13th century also survived. The original Great Organ, the cathedral’s altar and a golden cross are still intact amid the scorched debris from the blaze.

According to CBS News, a total of 16 rooftop statues were luckily removed a week before the fire. The statues depict the 12 apostles and four evangelists. Candelabras, gilded furniture and other valuable pieces retrieved from the Notre Dame Cathedral were taken to city hall in Paris after the fire.

The spire on top of the Notre Dame dramatically collapsed during the fire, and the relics inside the spire did not survive.

“What they didn’t save were the relics that were in the spire of the cathedral itself,” said Candida Moss, professor of theology at Britain’s University of Birmingham.

Due the damage caused to the cathedral, the cathedral fundraising efforts neared the $1 billion mark a couple days after the fire.

Multiple French billionaires joined an international effort to raise funds to rebuild the Notre Dame Cathedral. However, the donations have sparked a debate about income inequality and the worthiness of the cause, stated USA Today.

The discussion was sparked by two billionaires, Francois Henri Pinault and Bernard Arnault, who each donated more than $100 million to the efforts.

Cosmetics company L’Oréal, along with the Bettencourt Meyers family and the Bettencourt Schueller Foundation were other top donors to the cause.

The quote among the critics – from USA Today – stated that the mega-donations prove social problems could be quickly addressed if the wealthy were motivated to do so.

“If they can give tens of millions to rebuild Notre Dame, then they should stop telling us there is no money to help with social emergencies,” said The Washington Post’s Philippe Martinez.

“With a click of their fingers, TWO French billionaires have given €300 million to restore Notre Dame. Just imagine if billionaires cared as much about (uhhhh) human people,” said Carl Kinsella on Twitter.

Comments like this could backfire towards the rest of the public, because the very wealthy get a lot of scrutiny for hefty donations, which may lead to some not donating to charity organizations in the future.

 

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